"I am at home not working because of sanctions imposed on the Russians and indecision of whether we want to break up UK and Europe into small units. Scotland to break with what is the UK has caused a lot of problem to Oil & Gas and destabilized businesses and prices. Delayed projects that should be happening now. And Catalonia will cause problem for Spain.
It is my belief more experienced people are sitting at home because they have been forced to continue doing nuts and bolts. The average younger engineers want to be project engineers and project managers only without practicing the core skills properly. It is the people on the shop floor which should be promoted to be managers they have clearer for sight. Consequence is energy will cost us a lot more until we re-address who are the decision makers."
not only bridges
Given n arbitrarily oriented groups of parallel bars with corresponding reinforcement ratios A(1), A(2),…, A(i),…, A(n), the equivalent reinforcement ratios Ax, Ay, Axy for the structural model axis XY can be obtained from the following equations
It is generally assumed that tension (positive axial force) governs the reinforcement design of the slab and the plus sign generally applies. When the assumed-to-be-tension design axial force is a compression the axial force can be taken as zero.
- Spanish version of this post has been gently published by J. A. Agudelo in http://estructurando.net/2014/09/29/el-problema-del-diseno-de-armado-oblicuo-no-perpendicular/
Looking at the maps in the article http://www.theatlanticcities.com/neighborhoods/2013/05/way-we-build-cities-making-them-flood/5590/ I found a report by the Chicago-based Center for Neighborhood Technology based on 177000 local flood insurance claims that found no correlation between damage and floodplains, as this graph shows:
It is a completely counter-intuitive result: are flood plains not always a good indicator of flood risk?
The main problem is that the flood decisions that local governments are making today not only determine how much damage future floods will cause locally, but also how healthy the community’s river and coastal areas will be. Chicago and its surrounding cities, for example, have artificially created flood-prone places simply by paving over the region's natural ability to manage excess water.
Impervious surface creates risk over a much wider area, and it is impossible to say that just because you are locally above the 100 year flood, flooding is not a risk.
1) Create geometry in AutoCAD or free alternatives (Draftsight, Nanocad,...). Explode entities if necesary to obtain only lines and save as Frames.DXF
2) Use gCAD3D (it is a free and open software http://www.gcad3d.org/), import Frames.DXF and save as Frames.IGS
3) Import parts as wires with Abaqus/CAE
1) Create geometry in AutoCAD or similar. Explode entities if necesary to obtain only lines. Separate and save as Contour.DXF and Partitions.DXF
2) Import Contour.DXF as sketch in Abaqus/CAE
3) Create part form sketch called Contour
4) Tools> Partition>Face>Sketch and use the sketch called Partitions
3D Shells and solids:
1) Create regions (command REGION of AutoCAD) and solids in AutoCAD and export as SAT (ACIS) file
2) Import parts as shells and solids with Abaqus/CAE
The latest procedure also works for planar shells but it is less precise.